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calmouk

Происхождение ойратской письменности

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calmouk    5
We know that the Mongols borrowed their script from the Uigurs. ButAbb Jean Paul Bignon, the librarian of the French king Louis XV, in his letter to Peter the Great (published by Müller p.425) denied the existence of any people called “Uigur”, explaining that the Mongols (Kalmyks, actually) used to call all unknown foreigners “Uigur”.

 

Это правда, ведь слово "уугр" (бытовое название русских, "чужаков") до сих пор существует в калмыцком языке, но его нет в монгольском...

 

Один из самых интересных вопросов культурной и социальной истории чая — каким образом чай проник в повседневный рацион оседлого населения Средней Азии. По-видимому, раньше всех этот процесс затронул "кашгарцев" Восточного Туркестана (которые в XX в. были переименованы в уйгуров). Здесь сыграл свою роль тот факт, что население этого региона находилось в тесном контакте с западными монголами. Кроме того, надо иметь в виду, что доля городского населения в Восточном Туркестане была весьма высокой, а значит, мода на чай распространялась здесь быстрее, причем предпочтение отдавалось "калмыцкому чаю", который у оседлого населения Восточного Туркестана, по утверждению И.В. Захаровой, на рубеже XIX—XX вв. был известен под названием "эткан-чой" [63].

 

Получается, название "уйгур" получило распространение совсем недавно... В 17-18 веках их называли "бухарцы", а Восточный Туркестан - "Малой Бухарией"...

А алфавит то назывался "уйгурским", т.е. "уугрским" всегда...

 

Uighur Script is so named for the Uighur tribe, conquered by the Mongols, from whom this writing system was adopted. The Uighur (sometimes spelled Uigur, Uygur or Uygar) were a Turkic people who adapted the alphabet from Sogdian in the 9th century, which was itself derived from Aramaic and quite probably shares a common source with other Indo-European and Semitic alphabets.

 

Скорее всего, ойраты (калмыки) напрямую заимствовали алфавит из Согдианы, которая в то время (8-9 века) была буддистской страной... Где то я слышал, что впервые буддизм к калмыкам тоже пришел из Согдианы, а не из Тибета, что то там связано с именами ....

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Zorig    0
Скорее всего, ойраты (калмыки) напрямую заимствовали алфавит из Согдианы, которая в то время (8-9 века) была буддистской страной... Где то я слышал, что впервые буддизм к калмыкам тоже пришел из Согдианы, а не из Тибета, что то там связано с именами ....

 

ochen' stranno. Chto s toboi. ?

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nasna_erkt    0

calmouk, вы перечитали одного великого академика (Ф...о) :):lol: Не относитесь слишком серьезно к его писаниям. Лучше почитать любой, даже самый примитивный, учебник одного из алтайских языков + кит., чтобы приблизиться к предмету :)

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nasna_erkt    0

"Преподобный Жан Поль Биньон утверждал..." :) Представляю, через полгода будут ссылаться на кальмука. :lol:

 

На каком основании он утверждал это? Ах, да, потому что the Mongols (Kalmyks, actually) used to call all unknown foreigners “Uigur”.

Т.е., говоря иными словами, он (и вы вслед за ним) переносит некую характеристику (в данном случае содержание наименования уйгур) с части на все целое.

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calmouk    5

По существу есть что сказать?

В калмыцком языке до сих пор существует слово "уугр". Для меня было интересно узнать что это слово существовало и в 16-17 веках. И это слово - калмыцкое, а не монгольское.

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nasna_erkt    0
По существу есть что сказать?
ууһр слово калмыцкое, а в 16-17 вв. оно бытовало в форме “Uigur”, т.е. в своей исходной форме. В таком виде это слово сохранилось во многих монгольских наречиях. У ойрат (ну и у калмыков, как их части) за несколько веков произошли значительные изменения в звуковом строе языка, в частности на месте прежних дифтонгов образовались монофтонги: уй > уу, ай > әә или аа, ой > өө, эй > әә.

 

В калмыцком языке до сих пор существует слово "уугр".

да, оно существует, потому что калмыцкий является потомком общемонгольского языка

 

Для меня было интересно узнать что это слово существовало и в 16-17 веках.
Оно не могло не существовать в это время и существовало еще раньше. Об этом свидетельствуют монгольские памятники 13-14 вв. А также орхонские памятники 8 в.

 

И это слово - калмыцкое, а не монгольское.

перестаньте лукавить :) В приведенной вами цитате слово звучит как “Uigur”, а в калмыцком — ууһр.

 

На самом деле, как я уже сказал. В любой форме это слово одно и то же.

Оно существует давно и нет оснований утверждать (цитирую):

слово "уугр" (бытовое название русских, "чужаков") до сих пор существует в калмыцком языке, но его нет в монгольском...
название "уйгур" получило распространение совсем недавно... В 17-18 веках их называли "бухарцы", а Восточный Туркестан - "Малой Бухарией"...

А алфавит то назывался "уйгурским", т.е. "уугрским" всегда...

 

и уж тем более

Скорее всего, ойраты (калмыки) напрямую заимствовали алфавит из Согдианы, которая в то время (8-9 века) была буддистской страной... Где то я слышал, что впервые буддизм к калмыкам тоже пришел из Согдианы, а не из Тибета, что то там связано с именами ....

Кстати, где вы слышали, что "впервые буддизм к калмыкам тоже пришел из Согдианы, а не из Тибета, что то там связано с именами ...." :lol:

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enhd    0
... У ойрат (ну и у калмыков, как их части) за несколько веков произошли значительные изменения в звуковом строе языка, в частности на месте прежних дифтонгов образовались монофтонги: уй > уу, ай > әә или аа, ой > өө, эй > әә...

Вот этим я не согласен :) .

Мое мнение таков что ойраты так и говорили даже во время начала объединения монгольских племен. Тем более думаю что со временем очень близился по диалекту с восточно-монгольскому языку (халхасский, чахарский).

 

Даже может быть ойраты говорили в основном на тюркском языке с очень сильным влиянием монгольского, и в течение времени полностью перешли на монгольский язык но сохранив диалектные особенности исконного тюркского.

 

По существу есть что сказать?

В калмыцком языке до сих пор существует слово "уугр". Для меня было интересно узнать что это слово существовало и в 16-17 веках. И это слово - калмыцкое, а не монгольское.

Calmouk-у полный зачет :):):D:lol: . Нет границ у твоей фантазии. Так держать, не скучаем с твоими фантазиями.

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nasna_erkt    0
Вот этим я не согласен :lol: .

Мое мнение таков что ойраты так и говорили даже во время начала объединения монгольских племен. Тем более думаю что со временем очень близился по диалекту с восточно-монгольскому языку (халхасский, чахарский).

 

Даже может быть ойраты говорили в основном на тюркском языке с очень сильным влиянием монгольского, и в течение времени полностью перешли на монгольский язык но сохранив диалектные особенности исконного тюркского.

 

 

Очень интересное мнение. Спасибо!

Услышать бы еще обоснование :)

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calmouk    5
Вот этим я не согласен ;) .

Мое мнение таков что ойраты так и говорили даже во время начала объединения монгольских племен. Тем более думаю что со временем очень близился по диалекту с восточно-монгольскому языку (халхасский, чахарский).

 

Даже может быть ойраты говорили в основном на тюркском языке с очень сильным влиянием монгольского, и в течение времени полностью перешли на монгольский язык но сохранив диалектные особенности исконного тюркского.

 

Развитие (изменение) языка и наличие национального государства сильно взаимосвязаны.

 

Калмыцкий (ойратский) язык "заморожен" на уровне 18 века. Существует редкая возможность наблюдать подобное "консервирование"

языка на примере калмыков России и Синьцзяна.

 

Согласно этому предположению, язык чахаров тоже должен быть "заморожен" где-то на уровне 17 века, просто это не бросается в глаза за отсутствием "контрольной группы" (хотя есть небольшая группа чахар в Бортале, куда их переселили маньчжуры в 18 веке) . Т.е. чахарский язык должен быть ближе к ойратскому чем халхаский.

 

 

Calmouk-у полный зачет :D:D:D:P . Нет границ у твоей фантазии. Так держать, не скучаем с твоими фантазиями.

 

Пытаюсь сподвигнуть вас начать мыслить, а не пересказывать как попугаи старые сказки

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enhd    0
Развитие (изменение) языка и наличие национального государства сильно взаимосвязаны.

 

Калмыцкий (ойратский) язык "заморожен" на уровне 18 века. Существует редкая возможность наблюдать подобное "консервирование"

языка на примере калмыков России и Синьцзяна.

 

Согласно этому предположению, язык чахаров тоже должен быть "заморожен" где-то на уровне 17 века, просто это не бросается в глаза за отсутствием "контрольной группы" (хотя есть небольшая группа чахар в Бортале, куда их переселили маньчжуры в 18 веке) . Т.е. чахарский язык должен быть ближе к ойратскому чем халхаский.

Да чахарский имеет общие характеристики с ойратским языком в диалектовом отношении - это чувствуется когда я посмотрю "увюр монголин одон телевиз". Но, увюр монгольский очень разнообразный там нет общего диалекта. Чисто мое мнение западная часть Алашань и ??? более имеют схожие диалектные выражение с ойратским. Ну, некоторые не отличаются сосвем с нашим халха-монгольским.

А харчинов и хорчинов вообще трудно понимать слишком уж китаезированы или ихний диалект совсем архаичный может быть.

 

Пытаюсь сподвигнуть вас начать мыслить, а не пересказывать как попугаи старые сказки

Дорогой не знаешь и не прочитывал даже этих сказок полностью ;) , а собственно на каких больших "китах" основывается все эти Ваши продумки?? :P:D .

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calmouk    5
Да чахарский имеет общие характеристики с ойратским языком в диалектовом отношении - это чувствуется когда я посмотрю "увюр монголин одон телевиз". Но, увюр монгольский очень разнообразный там нет общего диалекта. Чисто мое мнение западная часть Алашань и ??? более имеют схожие диалектные выражение с ойратским. Ну, некоторые не отличаются сосвем с нашим халха-монгольским.

А харчинов и хорчинов вообще трудно понимать слишком уж китаезированы или ихний диалект совсем архаичный может быть.

 

"Похожесть" на ойратский здесь не причем. Важно то, что чахарский "законсервирован"...

 

Дорогой не знаешь и не прочитывал даже этих сказок полностью ;) , а собственно на каких больших "китах" основывается все эти Ваши продумки?? :P:D .

 

Это вы ничего не читали. Я выложил монгольские "источники" - почему не читаете? :D

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calmouk    5

У меня к монголам пара вопросов -

1. есть ли в монгольском слово “Uigur”, как оно произносится и что означает?

2. есть ли в монгольском слово “уугр” и что означает?

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Zorig    0

MongolOrkhon.gif

 

1. Orkhon Alphabet / Ancient Turkic Runes

Earliest writing system for nomads in terrritory of Mongolia, early 8th century, and derived from noncursive Sogdian. Letters are written from right to left or bottom to top. Some theories argue that Orkhon is directly related to Hungarian and Germanic Runes. Replaced in the 9th century by Uighur Script.

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Zorig    0

Uighur.gif

 

2. Uighur Script

Developed in the 9th century, derived from cursive Sogdian. It was the basis for the Mongolian Script, sometimes known by the same name.

 

3. Khitan: (Liao dynasty 916-1125, Khara Khitai - Marco Polo's Cathay)

Large Script and Small Script

Ihe Bichig and Bagha Bichig

An extinct Altaic language, probably from the Mongolic branch, that used two scripts simultaneously, referred to as "Large Script" and "Small Script", developed in 920 and 925 respectively. The former is a logographic script based on Chinese characters, and the latter, developed by a Khitan scholar named Diela, is a syllabic script influenced in part by Uighur with characters for each syllable combined into word groups. Used until 1191.

 

Mongghol.gif

 

4. Classical Mongol Script / Old Script Mongol Bichig

This phonetic alphabet was adapted in 1204 from the alphabet used by the Uighur tribe at the time. This alphabet has survived numerous attempts at replacement and is still used in Mongolia, as well as Mongol inhabited territories controlled by China and Russia, today. It remains a primary script among Inner Mongolians in China, while Mongolians from other regions primarily use Cyrillic letters but often learn this script as part of their cultural heritage.

 

MongolFolded.gif

 

5. Folded Script

This script was used as early as the mid 13th century as a stylistic variation of Uighur Script. It is still used in modern Mongolia on occasional signs and books.

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Zorig    0

MongolPhagsPa.gif

 

6. Phags Pa Script / Square Script

Pagva Bichig / Dörvöljin Bichig

Invented in 1269 by Phags Pa Lama for Khubilai Khan, this script was adopted for official documents in the Yuan dynasty. The letters of this syllabic alphabet are based on his native Tibetan script but contain other influences such as being written vertically like the Uighur Script and grouped into syllables like Khitan Small Script. This script was intended to be a universal script for all languages spoken in the Mongol Empire including Mongol, Arabic, Tibetan, Chinese, Sanskrit and Turkic. It did not replace the traditional writing systems of the respective peoples and ceased being used in 1368 with the fall of the Yuan dynasty. Also transcribed "hPags-Pa".

 

ClearScript_Tod_sm.jpg

 

7. Clear Script

Tod Bichig

This alphabet, developed in 1648 by Zaya Pandit Namhaijamts (1599-1662), was intended mainly for Oirat but also for Mongol, Samgard, Tibetan and Sanskrit. This is based on the Classical Mongol Script with ambiguous letters, such as 'O' and 'U', differentiated to be more clear cut. This was used by Oirats in the region between the Ijil River, Ezen River and Kökö Lake. It is still used today by Oirats in Shinjaan.

 

MongolSoyombo1.gif

 

8. Soyombo Script

Soyombo Bichig

This syllabary was developed by (Buddhist) Saint Zanabazar in 1686. The name means "Self developed Holy Letters" in Samgard. It was intended to accommodate Mongol, Samgard, Tibetan and for transcribing foreign words. It is typically written from left to right but can be written from top to bottom. Soyombo never widely caught on because it was too difficult to use. Though it has seen some regular use in official capacities such as official seals. It also became a focus of national pride under Bogd Khaan. It's most lasting legacy is the initial symbol of the script being incorporated into the flag of Mongolia.

 

MongolHorSq.gif

 

9. Horizontal Square Script

Hevtee Dörvöljin Üseg

Another syllabary developed by (Buddhist) Saint Zanabazar around the same time as Soyombo. It contains some influence of the Korean Script (Hunmin chong'um). It is written from left to right and can be used for Mongol, Samgard and Tibetan. Since its rediscovery in 1801, it's actual usage remains unknown.

 

MongolVaghintara.gif

 

10. Vaghintara Script

Vagindragiin Üseg

This alphabetic script was developed in 1905 by a Buryat monk named Agwan-Dorji (1850-1938) as a variation of Uighur Script with less ambiguity. A notable change in this alphabet is that the letters no longer have three different forms. Rather a single form, based on the Medial of the Old Mongol Script, is used regardless of position in the word. The name of this script is based on the Sanskrit translation of the inventor's first name. It was intended to accommodate transcribing Russian words as well. Its use is limited to about ten books printed until 1910 when financial problems prevented him from continuing to promote the alphabet.

 

MongolLatin.gif

 

11. Latin Alphabet

The earliest known use of Latin letters to write Mongol is with the transcription of Mongol words into the journals of the European travelers in the 13th century such as John Plano of Carpini, William of Rubrick, and later Marco Polo. An attempt was made to develop a system of using Latin letters for Buryat between 1921 and 1931, when it was implemented. But it was short lived as it was replaced by Cyrillic in 1937 under Russian influence. Mongolia also officially adopted the Latin alphabet on February 1st, 1941 but then annulled the law two months later, on March 25th, as it did not cover all the sounds in Mongol and proved too difficult to utilize.

 

CyrillicMongol.gif

 

12. Cyrillic Alphabet

The Cyrillic alphabet used for Mongolian is directly based on the Russian alphabet with the addition of two vowels derived from Old Cyrillic. It is said that Stalin got upset with the plethora of alphabets used by the various Russian territories acquired in their Tsarist colonial days, including Buryatia, Georgia and Armenia, as well as the satellite nations added in the early days of the Soviet Union. So he mandated that people under his control use Cyrillic for their respective languages. Cyrillic, with special additions tailored to Buryat Mongol, was adopted in Buryatia in 1937, and officially in Mongolia on May 9th, 1941, but was not implemented there until the beginning of 1946.

 

MongolCyrillic_sm.gif

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calmouk    5

Повторю-ка пара вопросов монголам -

1. есть ли в монгольском слово “Uigur”, как оно произносится и что означает?

2. есть ли в монгольском слово “уугр” и что означает?

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shibudai    2
Повторю-ка пара вопросов монголам -

1. есть ли в монгольском слово “Uigur”, как оно произносится и что означает?

2. есть ли в монгольском слово “уугр” и что означает?

Уйгар такое слово есть

на худам бичиг пишется Uyigur

1. означание - народ Уйгуры

2. означение - в Хувсгуле этим словом называют тувинцев-цаатанов.

''Урцанд тєрсєн

Уйгар даарахгvй'' (Уйгур родившийся в шалаше, не простудится) (Урцнд тєрсн Уугр дааршго)

 

еще выражение тункинских бурят-монголов(не вздумайте что они ''гибриды''. Бурят-монгол наше самоназвание) 'уйгар хэлэтэй' означает, язык непонятный.

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enhd    0
Повторю-ка пара вопросов монголам -

1. есть ли в монгольском слово “Uigur”, как оно произносится и что означает?

2. есть ли в монгольском слово “уугр” и что означает?

Не покажи свою дурь дорогой Кальмук перед нашими школьниками. Они проходят полный курс в средней школе по "уйгур"-ам и их государственности которая была создана в нашей территории и оставлены многие письменные памятники.

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calmouk    5
Уйгар такое слово есть

на худам бичиг пишется Uyigur

1. означание - народ Уйгуры

2. означение - в Хувсгуле этим словом называют тувинцев-цаатанов.

''Урцанд тєрсєн

Уйгар даарахгvй'' (Уйгур родившийся в шалаше, не простудится) (Урцнд тєрсн Уугр дааршго)

 

еще выражение тункинских бурят-монголов(не вздумайте что они ''гибриды''. Бурят-монгол наше самоназвание) 'уйгар хэлэтэй' означает, язык непонятный.

 

То есть у халхов это слово отсутствует?

 

А как произносится - "уйгар" или "уугр"?

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shibudai    2
То есть у халхов это слово отсутствует?

 

А как произносится - "уйгар" или "уугр"?

первое я думаю.

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calmouk    5
в источниках на тодо бичиг,

мангуд-татары

хотон-уйгуры

анжиан-узбеки

хасаг-казахи

буруд-киргизы

кункер-турция

 

Если народ Уйгуры называли "Хотон", то "уйгурское письмо" должно было называться "хотонским письмом" :rolleyes:

 

Получаетсяб что я прав - "уйгурское письмо", "уугрин бичиг" означает "чужеземное письмо" - ведь "Худм Бичиг" - это согдийский скрипт, арамейский.

 

Настоящие же Уйгуры используют арабский скрипт, как и все тюрки-мусульмане.

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calmouk    5
Uyghur is a Turkic language with about 10 million speakers mainly in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, and also in Afghanistan, Australia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Turkey, the USA and Uzbekistan.

 

Uyghur was originally written with the Orkhon alphabet, a runiform script derived from or inspired by the Sogdian script, which was ultimately derived from the Aramaic script.

 

Between the 8th and the 16th century, Uyghur was written with an alphabet derived from Sogdian known as Old Uyghur. Unlike Sogdian, which was written from right to left in horizontal lines, the Old Uyghur alphabet was written from left to right in vertical columns, or in other words, it was a version of Sogdian rotated 90° to the left.

 

From the the 16th century until the early 20th century, Uyghur was written with a version of the Arabic alphabet known as 'Chagatai'. During the 20th century a number of versions of the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets were adopted to write Uyghur in different Uyghur-speaking regions. However the Latin alphabet was unpopular and in 1987 the Arabic script was reinstated as the official script for Uyghur in China.

 

The name of this language is variously spelt Uigur, Uiguir, Uighuir, Uygur, Uighur, Uygur, Uyghur or in Chinese, 维吾尔语 (Wéiwú'ěryǔ). Uyghur is the preferred spelling in the Latin alphabet: this was confirmed at a conference of the Ethnic Languages and Script Committe of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region held in October 2006. For details (in Uyghur), see: http://www.xjyw.gov.cn/han/YWGZDT/wwesiyingwenzhuanxie.htm

 

Неoбъяснимo, пoчему нарoд пoменял письменнoсть?

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calmouk    5
UIGHUR SCRIPT

 

by Kuddus Issiyev

Eastern Turkestan has been drawing attention of researchers of the world for a couple of centuries. Recently interest of the world was drawn to the region due to discovery of mysterious mummies, which are contemporaries of Egyptian mummies and date back as far as 2000 B.C.

 

At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries 11 Russian, 3 English, 2 French, 4 German, 3 Japanese expeditions were sent to the region. These expeditions have found ruins of ancient towns, burial places of the unknown people, architectural ensembles and huge amount of written texts on paper, wooden boards, and walls. They have brought out great amount of materials including written manuscripts, frescos, etc. Now these materials are being kept in museums, libraries and depositories of St.-Petersburg (Russia), Berlin (Germany), London (Great Britain), Paris (France), Peking (China), New Delhi (India) and Japan. The largest collection of the Ancient Uighur manuscripts and fragments - Turfan collection - was collected by the German researchers A.Grunvedel and A. Leqoc in 1902-1914. It includes more than 8 thousand units. Russian collection of the Leningrad Department of Russian Academy of Sciences includes about 4200 units of manuscripts. The materials of both collections are well studies. Some of them were published. Collections of the Uighur manuscripts in other countries are smaller and less studied.

 

Uighur documents found in Eastern Turkestan were written in various kinds of script, namely: Runic, Manichean, Syrian, Nestorian, Estrangelo, Brahmi Tibetan and actually Uighur. Uighur manuscripts found on territory of today's Mongolia were written in so-called Orkhon script. The majority of the texts, except those written in Orkhon and Uighur scripts, are the religious texts of Manicheans, Nestorians and Buddhists. Orkhon Runic script was used in writing of Epic works. Uighur script was widely used in day-to-day life for economic and juridical needs. I would like to address to this two kinds of script in more detail.

 

Runic Ancient Turkic script came into the world before the 7th century AD. It consisted of 37 or 38 graphemes, which were written separately from each other. The script was created on the basis of Sogdian non-cursive alphabet, which, in turn, ascends to Aramaic. Orkhon script was written from the right to the left. Most of consonant graphemes had several variants of spelling depending on vowels next to them. The system of denoting of vowels is based on the opposition of syllables containing forward and back vowels. Each grapheme denotes a syllable or a phoneme.

 

This script was very suitable for rock inscriptions and inscriptions on wooden boards and sticks. For the first time monuments of Orkhon script were found in the river Yenisei valley (today's Russia) in the time of Peter the Great at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th centuries. At the end of 19 centuries the Russian and Finnish expeditions were dispatched to Orkhon river (today's Mongolia) for the search and study of the monuments. Orkhon inscriptions are found on the gravestones, stele and obelisks, which describe the most important moments of life of the buried person. Next to the obelisks are found the stone statues, which personify the main enemies killed by the buried. Mainly, Uighur Orkhon inscriptions were created in the time of Orkhon Uighur Qaghanate, which existed in 745-840. They are the Selenga stone, Qarabalasaghun inscription, Sevrey stone, Terkhin and Tesin inscriptions. In those inscriptions we can find details on the history of the Qaghanate. Some samples of the Orkhon runic in the Uighur language were also found in Eastern Turkestan. But they are insignificant in number. The important fact is that so-called «Ancient Turkic language» actually is divided into 2 languages – the language of Ancient Turkic Runic inscriptions and the language of Ancient Uighur inscriptions. These two languages practically are the same. Creators of the Ancient Uighur manuscripts in Eastern Turkestan in one manuscript write, that they translated certain text from the certain language into Turkic, and in others the same translators write, that they translated the text into the Turkic Uighur language. (Shingko Seli-Tutung – Altun Yaruq – Suvarnaprabhasa). Uighur interpreters, monks and officials knew that the literary and linguistic tradition, which ascended to the Runic obelisks on Orkhon river, was uninterrupted and continuous, irrespective of change of religion and customs, and this tradition was related to the creators of the first written texts who called their language Turkic.

 

Uighur script was created on the basis of Sogdian cursive (italic) alphabet not later than the beginning of the 1st millennium. The earliest work written in the Uighur language in Uighur script "Huastuanift" – "Penitential pray of Manicheists" was dated by the Soviet researcher S.E.Malov the 5th century A.D. After having studied the Chinese historical chronicles, Uighur historian Turghun Almas asserts, that Uighur script came into the world several centuries before Christ.

 

The Uighur alphabet consisted of 20 letters, including 5 vowel and 15 consonant graphemes. 3 out of 5 vowels denoted 2 sounds each, thus they reproduces 8 vowel sounds. 3 consonant graphemes denoted 2 sounds each. Thus they reproduced 20 consonant sounds. Thus, the alphabet, which consisted of 20 graphemes, reproduced up to 30 phonemes. The spelling of the graphemes depends on their location in a word, i.e. each letter is spelled differently in the beginning, middle and the end of a word. The text in Uighur script was written vertically, from above downwards. Uighur script, being compact, reflected phonologic system of the language in the conditional form. Therefore today the restoration of real phonation of the language elements is very hard.

 

As it was already said before, the Uighur documents found in Eastern Turkestan, mainly represent the translations of religious texts, and also significant quantity of the economic and legal documents. The religious texts including Buddhist, Manichean and Christian sutras, tenets, descriptions of life of the Saints, etc. were translated from Sanskrit, Tokharian, Chinese, Sogdian and other languages. The main purpose of these documents was the distribution and strengthening of religion in Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia, and also in China. These documents are of particular importance for the researchers because many works in the originals language have not reached us. They would have been irrevocably lost, if there had not existed their translations in the Uighur language. The legal documents included papers attesting sale and purchase, loan of money and property, borrowing of cattle, rent of property, debt receipts, etc. The economic documents comprised the orders and references of authorities concerning economic activity of landlords and farmers.

 

Such documents were written not only by officials, but also by ordinary people. It shows the high level of literacy among the Uighurs in the Middle Ages, as every farmer could write.

 

As is known, the Mongols by the order of Genghis-khan adopted the Uighur script in the 12-13th centuries through Uighur clerks, administrative officials, and also khans' children educators, who occupied important positions at the court of the Mongolian khans. Plano Karpini, Guillom de Rubruk and Marco Polo wrote about it in their travel notes when they visited the Mongol Empire in the 13th century. In Mongolia this script is still used though it is a little modified variant. In the time of Mongol dynasty Yuan in China in 1260-1368 where the Uighurs also occupied important administrative positions, the Uighur script was borrowed by the Manchu.

 

By the 7th century A.D. Buddhism lost its ground in India, and in China it did not yet spread vastly. Thus in the 7-10th centuries Eastern Turkestan became the world Buddhist center with hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and thousand of monks. Buddhist monks and those who wanted to follow Buddhism came into Eastern Turkestan from all Central Asia and China to purchase religious books, to receive enlightenment, and to participate in theological discussions. The demand for books increased extremely and the old days' method of book writing and copying, which required large forces, expenses and time, could not satisfy the demand. At this particular time in Turfan the book printing by xylography was invented. Perhaps, it is not the accident that the majority of Uighur manuscripts dated the 8-13th centuries was found around town of Turfan, which was the pioneer of book printing. Some say, that xylography is a Chinese way of book printing. But they are mistaken, relating Turfan to China. Today Turfan is in China, but in the time of the invention Turfan was not a part of China. It could have been very difficult for the Chinese to introduce this way of book printing, since the Chinese language is expressed on a paper by means of thousands of hieroglyphs (characters). It is an infernal work to cut out thousands of tiny hieroglyphs, which could have been destroyed after several printings. After that it would have been necessary to cut them out again. According to T.F.Carter, the Chinese written official chronicles do not indicate that the book printing was invented in China. To compare, it is necessary to say, that in Europe the xylography came into the world only in the 14th century. The first printing press in Europe was invented by Joan Gutenberg in Germany only in 1450. Thousands of books printed in Eastern Turkestan needed to be stored somewhere. For this purpose, numerous libraries were built. Up to this day researchers discover documents, books and manuscripts of the past in those libraries.

 

By the religious context the Uighur documents in Uighur script are divided into 3 categories: the texts of Buddhist, Manichean and Christian contents.

 

A minor part of the Uighur manuscripts discovered in Eastern Turkestan were written on a wooden boards and sticks. But the majority of them was written on a paper. Manufacture of paper in this region began approximately in the beginning of the 2d century AD, first in Hotan and Qashqar, and later in Turfan and Kuchar (the 4th century). Paper was produced of bark of some trees (Broussonetia papyrifera, paper mulberry-tree). In Aqsu area paper was produced of cotton. In the process of producing paper, it was imbued with starch glue, then covered with a layer of plaster and polished. To ensue the best preservation of paper, it was imbued with sap of flowers and fruits of certain tree, which is called thumäk in Uighur (huay). It is interesting that nowadays in Eastern Turkestan local Uighur craftsmen produce paper by the same way, as their ancestors long time ago.

 

Documents found in Dunghuang and dated the 18th century are the last manuscripts in the Uighur language in Uighur script. By the 18th century, mainly the population of Eastern Turkestan had switched to the Arabic alphabet. Only Buddhist clergy, who formed a stronghold in Dunghuang, continued to use the same old Uighur script.

 

Script, which was used more than 700-800 years not only by the Uighurs, but also by other Turkic and non-Turkic peoples, as well as huge cultural and political influence of the Uighurs in Central Asia fell into decay with arrival of Islam into the region. As is known, Uighur khan Sutuq Bughra-khan adopted Islam in 932 and since then the influence of the Arabic language, culture and arts on the peoples who inhabited the region has steadily increased. Though in Turfan and Dunghuang areas Buddhism and its influence remained unchanged up to the 14-15th centuries.

 

Eastern Turkestan has been regarded by many scholars as the most mysterious spot on the planet. However, this region has not been sufficiently studied since the lack of resources and well-known attitude of the Chinese government towards foreign presence in the region erect insurmountable obstacles for researchers. Nowadays, the Uighur people who has created numerous invaluable monuments in literature and arts, who has influenced the development and evolution of other people and played an important role in the politics of the region, is being annihilated by the Chinese government policies. If the world continues to do nothing about it, this people will cease to exist.

 

 

 

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Bibliography:

 

Klyashtorny S.G., Ancient Turkic Manuscripts // Eastern Turkestan in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Moscow, 1992 (In Russian)

Tugusheva L.Yu. Uighur Handwritten Book in Early Middle Ages // Handwritten Book in Culture of Oriental Peoples, Moscow, 1988 (In Russian)

Vorobyeva-Desyatkovskaya M.I., Handwritten Book in Central Asian in Pre-Muslim Period // Handwritten Book in Culture of Oriental Peoples, Moscow, 1988 (In Russian)

Malov S.E., Ancient Turkic Manuscripts, Moscow-Leningrad, 1951 (In Russian)

Turghun Almas, The Uighurs, Volume 2, Almaty, 1994 (In Russian)

 

 

 

Books that have been written up to now in the Uighur alphabet, ... al-asrar, were considered to be "Uighur" simply because the Uighur alphabet was used. ...

 

"Early Mystics in Turkish Literature" ISBN 0415366860

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calmouk    5
Uighur language, or New-Uighur language, or Taranchi dialect

 

Encyclopædia Britannica : Related Articles

A selection of articles discussing this topic.

 

Main article: Uighur language

 

member of the Turkic subfamily of the Altaic language family, spoken by Uighurs in the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang of northwestern China and in portions of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The modern Uighur language, which was based on the Taranchi dialect spoken in Russia before the Russian Revolution of 1917, is classified with Uzbek in the southeastern (Uighur-Chagatai) branch...

 

 

Прикoльнo, oказывается, уйгур дo ревoлюции называли ТАРАНЧИ, чтo пo-калмыцки oзначает буквальнo "пахарь" :(

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